Updated: Apr 16
There is a lot of debate surrounding the topic of squats and whether or not they are bad for your knees. Some people claim that squats are dangerous and can lead to injuries, while others say that they are a great way to build leg strength and improve functional performance. In this blog post, we will take a look at the pros and cons of squats and try to come to a conclusion about whether or not they are bad for your knees.
The Pros of Squats:
Squats are a great way to develop strength and power in the lower body. When done correctly, they can improve overall functional performance, allowing you to move more efficiently and with greater ease. Squats also help build muscle mass, which is very important for overall health and longevity.
Squats are a versatile and effective exercise with numerous benefits for your overall health and fitness. Some of the key advantages of incorporating squats into your workout routine include:
Improved lower body strength: Squats primarily target your quadriceps, hamstrings, and gluteal muscles, helping to increase strength and power in your lower body.
Core stabilization: Squats engage your core muscles, including your abdominal and lower back muscles, which helps improve balance and stability.
Increased flexibility: Squats require a good range of motion in your hips, knees, and ankles, which can help improve your overall flexibility and reduce the risk of injury.
Enhanced muscle and bone density: Squats are a weight-bearing exercise, which means they help promote bone health by increasing bone density. They also stimulate muscle growth, contributing to overall muscular development.
Better functional fitness: Squats are a functional movement, meaning they mimic everyday activities like sitting, standing, and lifting. Regular squatting can help improve your ability to perform daily tasks with ease.
Improved joint health: By strengthening the muscles surrounding your joints, squats can help reduce the stress placed on your knees, hips, and ankles, which may lead to improved joint health.
Increased calorie burn: Squats are a compound exercise, which means they work multiple muscle groups at once. This can help boost your metabolism and increase the number of calories you burn, even at rest.
Improved posture: Squats help to strengthen the muscles in your back and core, which can contribute to better posture and alignment.
Enhanced athletic performance: Squats are a foundational movement for many sports, and increased lower body strength can improve your overall athletic performance in activities such as running, jumping, and cycling.
Easy to modify: Squats can be easily adapted for different fitness levels and goals by adjusting the depth, weight, or variation of the exercise.
Functionally squats will help to build quad and glute strength. This helps improve your ability to do things like lifting, stair climbing, and push objects with your legs. If you have ever found that it is hard to climb down from a high step or wall, had trouble lifting something heavy in the garage, or tried to push your stalled car out of the street, squats can help train these functional movements.
Do I need to do squats to be strong and healthy?
The bottom line is that you don't really need to do resisted squats to be strong and healthy. I would argue however, you can be much more efficient in your workout if you are doing squats. Squats are a compound lift, which means they work multiple areas as once. Even more than just the quad and glutes, squats also work the core including abs and lumbar extensors. So if you are looking to become stronger and more efficient in your workouts, then squats can be a great way to do it.
Here are some variations of the squat. If back squat or front squat don't feel great for you then you can try one of these variations!
Goblet squat: This variation involves holding a kettlebell or dumbbell close to your chest with both hands while performing a squat. Goblet squats can help improve your upper body and core strength in addition to working your lower body muscles.
Sumo squat: The sumo squat targets your inner thighs, glutes, and quads. To perform a sumo squat, stand with your feet wider than shoulder-width apart and your toes pointing outwards at a 45-degree angle. Lower into a squat, keeping your chest lifted and back straight, then push through your heels to return to the starting position.
Bulgarian split squat: This squat variation challenges your balance and stability while working your quadriceps, hamstrings, and glutes. Stand in front of a bench or step, and place one foot behind you on the elevated surface. Lower your body into a lunge position, keeping your front knee aligned with your toes. Push through your front heel to return to the starting position and repeat on the other side.
Jump squat: Jump squats are a plyometric exercise that can help improve your explosive power and overall athletic performance. Start in a regular squat position and lower your body. Then, explosively jump upwards, extending your legs and pushing off your toes. Land softly with your knees bent and immediately lower into another squat.
Pistol squat: The pistol squat is an advanced, single-leg squat variation that requires significant strength, balance, and flexibility. To perform a pistol squat, stand on one leg with the other leg extended in front of you. Slowly lower your body into a squat position, keeping your extended leg off the ground and your supporting knee aligned with your toes. Push through your heel to return to the starting position and repeat on the other side.
The Cons of Squats:
Squats can potentially cause problems for people with knee issues or lower back pain. When done incorrectly, squats can increase the strain on these areas which could lead to injury. The main reasons why people get injured are that progress the resistance or volume too fast. Typically, progressing volume too fast can lead to pain in the front of the knee. This is sometimes called patellofemoral pain syndrome. This has to do with overload the knee joint and the tendons of the knee. These overuse injuries can be painful and limiting but usually resolve when you back down your volume. If you keep pushing forward you can cause a chronic tendinopathy. With physical therapy you can recover from these injuries with no major problem. Just remember, the sooner you come in the better.
Increasing load too fast can lead to more acute injuries such as muscle strain, and disc injuries. These types of injuries vary but typically require some physical therapy for recovery as well.
One of the biggest factors that can lead to knee injuries when squatting is poor technique. Incorrect form, such as allowing your knees to cave in or not properly engaging your core, can put undue stress on your knees and lower back. It's essential to learn the correct form and practice it consistently to minimize the risk of injury.
Everyone's body is different, and factors such as flexibility, mobility, and previous injuries can impact how your body responds to squats. For some individuals, squats may not be the best exercise choice due to these individual differences.
Alternatives to Squats
If you find that squats cause discomfort or pain, there are alternatives you can try to still work your lower body muscles effectively. Exercises like lunges, leg presses, and step-ups can provide similar benefits without putting as much stress on the knees.
Lunges: Lunges are a versatile lower body exercise that targets the quadriceps, hamstrings, and glutes. You can perform lunges in various ways, such as forward, reverse, or lateral lunges, to target different muscle groups.
Step-ups: For this exercise, you'll need a bench, box, or step. Step-ups work your quadriceps, hamstrings, and glutes, as well as your calf muscles. To perform a step-up, place one foot on the elevated surface, push through your heel, and lift your body up until your supporting leg is fully extended. Lower back down and repeat on the other side.
Hip thrusts: Hip thrusts primarily target the gluteal muscles while also engaging the hamstrings and lower back. To perform a hip thrust, sit on the ground with your upper back against a bench or step, knees bent, and feet flat on the floor. Hold a weight such as a barbell, dumbbell, or resistance band across your hips for added resistance. Push through your heels and lift your hips off the ground, squeezing your glutes at the top. Lower your hips back down and repeat.
Glute bridges: Glute bridges focus on your gluteal muscles and also engage your hamstrings and lower back. To perform a glute bridge, lie on your back with your knees bent and feet flat on the floor. Push through your heels and lift your hips off the ground, squeezing your glutes at the top. Lower your hips back down and repeat.
Bulgarian split squats: This exercise targets the quadriceps, hamstrings, and glutes while also challenging your balance and stability. To perform a Bulgarian split squat, stand in front of a bench or step and place one foot behind you on the elevated surface. Lower your body into a lunge position, keeping your front knee aligned with your toes. Push through your front heel to return to the starting position and repeat on the other side.
Squats, when done correctly, can be a highly effective and safe exercise for building lower body strength and improving functional performance. However, they may not be suitable for everyone, especially if you have pre-existing knee or lower back issues. If you are concerned about whether squats are appropriate for you, it's best to consult with a fitness professional or physical therapist who can assess your individual needs and provide guidance on the best exercises for you.
It's crucial to learn proper technique and progress slowly when adding resistance or volume to your squat workouts. Remember to listen to your body and make adjustments as needed. If squats cause pain or discomfort, explore alternative exercises to continue strengthening your lower body safely.
If you need to see a physical therapist about knee pain click below to learn more!